5 - Oberwolfach Reports (OWR)
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/17
The Oberwolfach Reports (OWR) is a serial containing official reports with extended abstracts of all talks of every Workshop in Oberwolfach.Thu, 19 Sep 2019 01:56:57 GMT2019-09-19T01:56:57Z5 - Oberwolfach Reports (OWR)http://publications.mfo.de:8080/bitstream/id/6e7d4dd0-8bd2-4fee-9d9e-26c7eb41c3a7/
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/17
Mathematical Instruments between Material Artifacts and Ideal Machines: Their Scientific and Social Role before 1950
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2507
Mathematical Instruments between Material Artifacts and Ideal Machines: Their Scientific and Social Role before 1950
Since 1950, mathematicians have become increasingly familiar with the digital computer in their professional practice. Previously, however, many other instruments, now mostly forgotten, were commonly used to compute numerical solutions, generate geometrical objects, investigate mathematical problems, derive new results, and apply mathematics in a variety of scientific contexts. The problem of characterizing the mathematical objects that can be constructed with a given set of instruments frequently prompted deep theoretical investigations, from the Euclidean geometry of constructions with straightedge and compass, to Shannon’s theorem which, in 1941, stated that the functions constructible with a differential analyzer are exactly the solutions of algebraic differential equations. Beyond these mathematical considerations, instruments should also be viewed as social objects of a given time period and cultural tradition that can amalgamate the perspectives of the inventor, the maker, the user, and the collector; in this sense, mathematical instruments are an important part of the mathematical cultural heritage and are thus widely used in many science museums to demonstrate the cultural value of mathematics to the public. This workshop brought together mathematicians, historians, philosophers, collection curators, and scholars of education to address the various approaches to the history of mathematical instruments and compare the definition and role of these instruments over time, with the following fundamental questions in mind – What is mathematical in a mathematical instrument? What kind of mathematics is involved? What does it mean to embody mathematics in a material artefact, and how do non-mathematicians engage with this kind of embodied mathematics?
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25072017-01-01T00:00:00ZSince 1950, mathematicians have become increasingly familiar with the digital computer in their professional practice. Previously, however, many other instruments, now mostly forgotten, were commonly used to compute numerical solutions, generate geometrical objects, investigate mathematical problems, derive new results, and apply mathematics in a variety of scientific contexts. The problem of characterizing the mathematical objects that can be constructed with a given set of instruments frequently prompted deep theoretical investigations, from the Euclidean geometry of constructions with straightedge and compass, to Shannon’s theorem which, in 1941, stated that the functions constructible with a differential analyzer are exactly the solutions of algebraic differential equations. Beyond these mathematical considerations, instruments should also be viewed as social objects of a given time period and cultural tradition that can amalgamate the perspectives of the inventor, the maker, the user, and the collector; in this sense, mathematical instruments are an important part of the mathematical cultural heritage and are thus widely used in many science museums to demonstrate the cultural value of mathematics to the public. This workshop brought together mathematicians, historians, philosophers, collection curators, and scholars of education to address the various approaches to the history of mathematical instruments and compare the definition and role of these instruments over time, with the following fundamental questions in mind – What is mathematical in a mathematical instrument? What kind of mathematics is involved? What does it mean to embody mathematics in a material artefact, and how do non-mathematicians engage with this kind of embodied mathematics?Network Models: Structure and Function
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2506
Network Models: Structure and Function
The focus of the meeting was on the mathematical analysis of complex networks, both on how networks emerge through microscopic interaction rules as well as on dynamic processes and optimization problems on networks, including random walks, interacting particle systems and search algorithms. Topics that were addressed included: percolation on graphs and critical regimes for the emergence of a giant component; graph limits and graphons; epidemics, propagation and competition; trees and forests; dynamic random graphs; local versus global algorithms; statistical learning on networks.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25062017-01-01T00:00:00ZThe focus of the meeting was on the mathematical analysis of complex networks, both on how networks emerge through microscopic interaction rules as well as on dynamic processes and optimization problems on networks, including random walks, interacting particle systems and search algorithms. Topics that were addressed included: percolation on graphs and critical regimes for the emergence of a giant component; graph limits and graphons; epidemics, propagation and competition; trees and forests; dynamic random graphs; local versus global algorithms; statistical learning on networks.Classical and Quantum Mechanical Models of Many-Particle Systems
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2505
Classical and Quantum Mechanical Models of Many-Particle Systems
This workshop was dedicated to the presentation of recent results in the field of the mathematical study of kinetic theory and its naturalextensions (statistical physics and fluid mechanics). The main models are the Vlasov(-Poisson) equation and the Boltzmann equation, which are obtainedas limits of many-body equations (Newton’s equations in the classical case and Schrödinger’s equation in the quantum case) thanks to the mean-field and Boltzmann-Grad scalings. Numerical aspects and applications to mechanics, physics, engineering and biology were also discussed.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25052017-01-01T00:00:00ZThis workshop was dedicated to the presentation of recent results in the field of the mathematical study of kinetic theory and its naturalextensions (statistical physics and fluid mechanics). The main models are the Vlasov(-Poisson) equation and the Boltzmann equation, which are obtainedas limits of many-body equations (Newton’s equations in the classical case and Schrödinger’s equation in the quantum case) thanks to the mean-field and Boltzmann-Grad scalings. Numerical aspects and applications to mechanics, physics, engineering and biology were also discussed.Reflection Positivity
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2504
Reflection Positivity
The main theme of the workshop was reflection positivity and its occurences in various areas of mathematics and physics, such as Representation Theory, Quantum Field Theory, Noncommutative Geometry, Dynamical Systems, Analysis and Statistical Mechanics. Accordingly, the program was intrinsically interdisciplinary and included talks covering different aspects of reflection positivity.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25042017-01-01T00:00:00ZThe main theme of the workshop was reflection positivity and its occurences in various areas of mathematics and physics, such as Representation Theory, Quantum Field Theory, Noncommutative Geometry, Dynamical Systems, Analysis and Statistical Mechanics. Accordingly, the program was intrinsically interdisciplinary and included talks covering different aspects of reflection positivity.Variational Methods for Evolution
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2503
Variational Methods for Evolution
Many evolutionary systems, as for example gradient flows or Hamiltonian systems, can be formulated in terms of variational principles or can be approximated using time-incremental minimization. Hence they can be studied using the mathematical techniques of the field of calculus of variations. This viewpoint has led to many discoveries and rapid expansion of the field over the last two decades. Relevant applications arise in mechanics of fluids and solids, in reaction-diffusion systems, in biology, in many-particle models, as well as in emerging uses in data science.
This workshop brought together a broad spectrum of researchers from calculus of variations, partial differential equations, metric geometry, and stochastics, as well as applied and computational scientists to discuss and exchange ideas. It focused on variational tools such as minimizing movement schemes, Gamma convergence, optimal transport, gradient flows, and large-deviation principles for time-continuous Markov processes.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25032017-01-01T00:00:00ZMany evolutionary systems, as for example gradient flows or Hamiltonian systems, can be formulated in terms of variational principles or can be approximated using time-incremental minimization. Hence they can be studied using the mathematical techniques of the field of calculus of variations. This viewpoint has led to many discoveries and rapid expansion of the field over the last two decades. Relevant applications arise in mechanics of fluids and solids, in reaction-diffusion systems, in biology, in many-particle models, as well as in emerging uses in data science.
This workshop brought together a broad spectrum of researchers from calculus of variations, partial differential equations, metric geometry, and stochastics, as well as applied and computational scientists to discuss and exchange ideas. It focused on variational tools such as minimizing movement schemes, Gamma convergence, optimal transport, gradient flows, and large-deviation principles for time-continuous Markov processes.Mathematical Logic: Proof Theory, Constructive Mathematics
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2502
Mathematical Logic: Proof Theory, Constructive Mathematics
The workshop “Mathematical Logic: Proof Theory, Constructive Mathematics” was centered around proof-theoretic aspects of core mathematics and theoretical computer science as well as homotopy type theory and logical aspects of computational complexity.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25022017-01-01T00:00:00ZThe workshop “Mathematical Logic: Proof Theory, Constructive Mathematics” was centered around proof-theoretic aspects of core mathematics and theoretical computer science as well as homotopy type theory and logical aspects of computational complexity.Copositivity and Complete Positivity
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2501
Copositivity and Complete Positivity
A real matrix $A$ is called copositive if $x^TAx \ge 0$ holds for all $x \in \mathbb R^n_+$. A matrix $A$ is called completely positive if it can be factorized as $A = BB^T$ , where $B$ is an entrywise nonnegative matrix. The concept of copositivity can be traced back to Theodore Motzkin in 1952, and that of complete positivity to Marshal Hall Jr. in 1958. The two classes are related, and both have received considerable attention in the linear algebra community and in the last two decades also in the mathematical optimization community. These matrix classes have important applications in various fields, in which they arise naturally, including mathematical modeling, optimization, dynamical systems and statistics. More applications constantly arise.
The workshop brought together people working in various disciplines related to copositivity and complete positivity, in order to discuss these concepts from different viewpoints and to join forces to better understand these difficult but fascinating classes of matrices.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25012017-01-01T00:00:00ZA real matrix $A$ is called copositive if $x^TAx \ge 0$ holds for all $x \in \mathbb R^n_+$. A matrix $A$ is called completely positive if it can be factorized as $A = BB^T$ , where $B$ is an entrywise nonnegative matrix. The concept of copositivity can be traced back to Theodore Motzkin in 1952, and that of complete positivity to Marshal Hall Jr. in 1958. The two classes are related, and both have received considerable attention in the linear algebra community and in the last two decades also in the mathematical optimization community. These matrix classes have important applications in various fields, in which they arise naturally, including mathematical modeling, optimization, dynamical systems and statistics. More applications constantly arise.
The workshop brought together people working in various disciplines related to copositivity and complete positivity, in order to discuss these concepts from different viewpoints and to join forces to better understand these difficult but fascinating classes of matrices.Interplay between Number Theory and Analysis for Dirichlet Series
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2500
Interplay between Number Theory and Analysis for Dirichlet Series
In recent years a number of challenging research problems have crystallized in the analytic theory of Dirichlet series and its interaction with function theory in polydiscs. Their solutions appear to require unconventional combinations of expertise from harmonic, functional, and complex analysis, and especially from analytic number theory. This MFO workshop provided an ideal arena for the exchange of ideas needed to nurture further progress and to solve important problems.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/25002017-01-01T00:00:00ZIn recent years a number of challenging research problems have crystallized in the analytic theory of Dirichlet series and its interaction with function theory in polydiscs. Their solutions appear to require unconventional combinations of expertise from harmonic, functional, and complex analysis, and especially from analytic number theory. This MFO workshop provided an ideal arena for the exchange of ideas needed to nurture further progress and to solve important problems.Mini-Workshop: Reflectionless Operators: The Deift and Simon Conjectures
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2499
Mini-Workshop: Reflectionless Operators: The Deift and Simon Conjectures
Reflectionless operators in one dimension are particularly amenable to inverse scattering and are intimately related to integrable systems like KdV and Toda. Recent work has indicated a strong (but not equivalent) relationship between reflectionless operators and almost periodic potentials with absolutely continuous spectrum. This makes the realm of reflectionless operators a natural place to begin addressing Deift’s conjecture on integrable flows with almost periodic initial conditions and Simon’s conjecture on gems of spectral theory establishing correspondences between certain coefficient and spectral properties.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/24992017-01-01T00:00:00ZReflectionless operators in one dimension are particularly amenable to inverse scattering and are intimately related to integrable systems like KdV and Toda. Recent work has indicated a strong (but not equivalent) relationship between reflectionless operators and almost periodic potentials with absolutely continuous spectrum. This makes the realm of reflectionless operators a natural place to begin addressing Deift’s conjecture on integrable flows with almost periodic initial conditions and Simon’s conjecture on gems of spectral theory establishing correspondences between certain coefficient and spectral properties.Mini-Workshop: PDE Models of Motility and Invasion in Active Biosystems
http://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/2498
Mini-Workshop: PDE Models of Motility and Invasion in Active Biosystems
Cell migration is crucial for the development and functioning of multicellular organisms; it plays an essential role in, e.g., morphogenesis, immune system dynamics, wound healing, angiogenesis, bacterial motion and biofilm formation, tumor growth and metastasis. Cell motility is a highly complex phenomenon involving a plethora of biophysical and biochemical events occuring on several time and space scales. The associated dynamics range from the subcellular level over individual cell behavior and up to the macroscopic level of cell populations; all these scales are tightly interrelated.
For decades, partial differential equations have been used to model the motility of single cells as well as the collective motion of cell assemblies like tumors. Mathematical models for both individual motile cells and invading tumors have major features in common. The active nature of cells leads to very similar nonlinear systems of coupled equations, the solutions of which often determine the position and shape of the objects of interest. Recently, several types of models attracted particular attention in the description of these systems: free boundary problems, phase field models, reaction-diffusion-taxis and kinetic transport equations. Both tumor growth/invasion and cell motility can be described by parabolic, hyperbolic, or elliptic equations; in case of free boundary problems, the boundary conditions are very similar. Thereby, the involved free boundaries can describe cell membranes, tumor margins, or interfaces between different tissues.
In this mini-workshop applied mathematicians and biophysicists using these model classes to describe different but related biological systems came together, presented their recent work and identified commonalities and differences in their approaches. Moreover, they discussed possible model extensions and their application to different, but related problems, along with the innovative utilization of certain mathematical tools to the analysis of the resulting systems.
Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 GMThttp://publications.mfo.de/handle/mfo/24982017-01-01T00:00:00ZCell migration is crucial for the development and functioning of multicellular organisms; it plays an essential role in, e.g., morphogenesis, immune system dynamics, wound healing, angiogenesis, bacterial motion and biofilm formation, tumor growth and metastasis. Cell motility is a highly complex phenomenon involving a plethora of biophysical and biochemical events occuring on several time and space scales. The associated dynamics range from the subcellular level over individual cell behavior and up to the macroscopic level of cell populations; all these scales are tightly interrelated.
For decades, partial differential equations have been used to model the motility of single cells as well as the collective motion of cell assemblies like tumors. Mathematical models for both individual motile cells and invading tumors have major features in common. The active nature of cells leads to very similar nonlinear systems of coupled equations, the solutions of which often determine the position and shape of the objects of interest. Recently, several types of models attracted particular attention in the description of these systems: free boundary problems, phase field models, reaction-diffusion-taxis and kinetic transport equations. Both tumor growth/invasion and cell motility can be described by parabolic, hyperbolic, or elliptic equations; in case of free boundary problems, the boundary conditions are very similar. Thereby, the involved free boundaries can describe cell membranes, tumor margins, or interfaces between different tissues.
In this mini-workshop applied mathematicians and biophysicists using these model classes to describe different but related biological systems came together, presented their recent work and identified commonalities and differences in their approaches. Moreover, they discussed possible model extensions and their application to different, but related problems, along with the innovative utilization of certain mathematical tools to the analysis of the resulting systems.