• Aperiodic Order and Spectral Properties 

      [SNAP-2017-003-EN] Baake, Michael; Damanik, David; Grimm, Uwe (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2017-09-14)
      Periodic structures like a typical tiled kitchen floor or the arrangement of carbon atoms in a diamond crystal certainly possess a high degree of order. But what is order without periodicity? In this snapshot, we are ...
    • Arrangements of lines 

      [SNAP-2014-005-EN] Harbourne, Brian; Szemberg, Tomasz (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2014)
      We discuss certain open problems in the context of arrangements of lines in the plane.
    • Billiards and flat surfaces 

      [SNAP-2015-001-EN] Davis, Diana (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2015)
      [also available in German] Billiards, the study of a ball bouncing around on a table, is a rich area of current mathematical research. We discuss questions and results on billiards, and on the related topic of flat surfaces.
    • Closed geodesics on surfaces and Riemannian manifolds 

      [SNAP-2017-005-EN] Radeschi, Marco (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2017-12-07)
      Geodesics are special paths in surfaces and so-called Riemannian manifolds which connect close points in the shortest way. Closed geodesics are geodesics which go back to where they started. In this snapshot we talk ...
    • The codimension 

      [SNAP-2018-009-EN] Lerario, Antonio (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-06-19)
      In this snapshot we discuss the notion of codimension, which is, in a sense, “dual” to the notion of dimension and is useful when studying the relative position of one object insider another one.
    • A few shades of interpolation 

      [SNAP-2017-007-EN] Szpond, Justyna (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2017-12-07)
      The topic of this snapshot is interpolation. In the ordinary sense, interpolation means to insert something of a different nature into something else. In mathematics, interpolation means constructing new data points ...
    • Footballs and donuts in four dimensions 

      [SNAP-2016-012-EN] Klee, Steven (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2016)
      In this snapshot, we explore connections between the mathematical areas of counting and geometry by studying objects called simplicial complexes. We begin by exploring many familiar objects in our three dimensional world ...
    • From computer algorithms to quantum field theory: an introduction to operads 

      [SNAP-2015-017-EN] Krähmer, Ulrich (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2015)
      An operad is an abstract mathematical tool encoding operations on specific mathematical structures. It finds applications in many areas of mathematics and related fields. This snapshot explains the concept of an operad and ...
    • Geometry behind one of the Painlevé III differential equations 

      [SNAP-2018-010-EN] Hertling, Claus (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-06-20)
      The Painlevé equations are second order differential equations, which were first studied more than 100 years ago. Nowadays they arise in many areas in mathematics and mathematical physics. This snapshot discusses the ...
    • Matrixfaktorisierungen 

      [SNAP-2014-002-DE] Lerche, Wolfgang (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2014)
      Im Folgenden soll ein kurzer Abriss des Themas Matrixfaktorisierungen gegeben werden. Wir werden darlegen, warum dieses recht simple Konzept zu erstaunlich tiefen mathematischen Gedankengängen führt und auch in der modernen ...
    • Minimizing energy 

      [SNAP-2015-002-EN] Breiner, Christine (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2015)
      What is the most efficient way to fence land when you’ve only got so many metres of fence? Or, to put it differently, what is the largest area bounded by a simple closed planar curve of fixed length? We consider the answer ...
    • Polyhedra and commensurability 

      [SNAP-2016-009-EN] Guglielmetti, Rafael; Jacquement, Matthieu (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2016)
      This snapshot introduces the notion of commensurability of polyhedra. At its bottom, this concept can be developed from constructions with paper, scissors, and glue. Starting with an elementary example, we formalize it ...
    • Das Problem der Kugelpackung 

      [SNAP-2016-004-DE] Dostert, Maria; Krupp, Stefan; Rolfes, Jan Hendrik (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2016)
      Wie würdest du Tennisbälle oder Orangen stapeln? Oder allgemeiner formuliert: Wie dicht lassen sich identische 3-dimensionale Objekte überschneidungsfrei anordnen? Das Problem, welches auch Anwendungen in der digitalen ...
    • Profinite groups 

      [SNAP-2016-014-EN] Bartholdi, Laurent (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2016)
      Profinite objects are mathematical constructions used to collect, in a uniform manner, facts about infinitely many finite objects. We shall review recent progress in the theory of profinite groups, due to Nikolov and Segal, ...
    • Spaces of Riemannian metrics 

      [SNAP-2017-010-EN] Bustamante, Mauricio; Kordaß, Jan-Bernhard (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2017-12-28)
      Riemannian metrics endow smooth manifolds such as surfaces with intrinsic geometric properties, for example with curvature. They also allow us to measure quantities like distances, angles and volumes. These are the ...
    • Swallowtail on the shore 

      [SNAP-2014-007-EN] Buchweitz, Ragnar-Olaf; Faber, Eleonore (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2014)
      Platonic solids, Felix Klein, H.S.M. Coxeter and a flap of a swallowtail: The five Platonic solids tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron have always attracted much curiosity from mathematicians, not ...
    • Topological Complexity, Robotics and Social Choice 

      [SNAP-2018-005-EN] Carrasquel, José; Lupton, Gregory; Oprea, John (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-08-10)
      Topological complexity is a number that measures how hard it is to plan motions (for robots, say) in terms of a particular space associated to the kind of motion to be planned. This is a burgeoning subject within the ...
    • Topological recursion 

      [SNAP-2018-002-EN] Sułkowski, Piotr (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-03-05)
      In this snapshot we present the concept of topological recursion – a new, surprisingly powerful formalism at the border of mathematics and physics, which has been actively developed within the last decade. After introducing ...
    • Tropical geometry 

      [SNAP-2018-007-EN] Brugallé, Erwan; Itenberg, Ilia; Shaw, Kristin; Viro, Oleg (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-07-19)
      What kind of strange spaces hide behind the enigmatic name of tropical geometry? In the tropics, just as in other geometries, one of the simplest objects is a line. Therefore, we begin our exploration by considering tropical ...
    • The Willmore Conjecture 

      [SNAP-2016-011-EN] Nowaczyk, Nikolai (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2016)
      The Willmore problem studies which torus has the least amount of bending energy. We explain how to think of a torus as a donut-shaped surface and how the intuitive notion of bending has been studied by mathematics over time.