• Analogue mathematical instruments: Examples from the “theoretical dynamics” group (France, 1948–1964) 

      [SNAP-2019-012-EN] Petitgirard, Loïc (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-11-21)
      Throughout the history of dynamical systems, instruments have been used to calculate and visualize (approximate) solutions of differential equations. Here we describe the approach of a group of physicists and engineers ...
    • $C^*$-algebras: structure and classification 

      [SNAP-2021-002-EN] Kerr, David (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2021-02-23)
      The theory of $C^*$-algebras traces its origins back to the development of quantum mechanics and it has evolved into a large and highly active field of mathematics. Much of the progress over the last couple of decades ...
    • Computing with symmetries 

      [SNAP-2018-003-EN] Roney-Dougal, Colva M. (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-03-06)
      Group theory is the study of symmetry, and has many applications both within and outside mathematics. In this snapshot, we give a brief introduction to symmetries, and how to compute with them.
    • Configuration spaces and braid groups 

      [SNAP-2019-011-EN] Jiménez Rolland, Rita; Xicoténcatl, Miguel A. (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-10-08)
      In this snapshot we introduce configuration spaces and explain how a mathematician studies their ‘shape’. This will lead us to consider paths of configurations and braid groups, and to explore how algebraic properties of ...
    • Data assimilation: mathematics for merging models and data 

      [SNAP-2018-011-EN] Morzfeld, Matthias; Reich, Sebastian (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2018-07-10)
      When you describe a physical process, for example, the weather on Earth, or an engineered system, such as a self-driving car, you typically have two sources of information. The first is a mathematical model, and the ...
    • Deep Learning and Inverse Problems 

      [SNAP-2019-015-EN] Arridge, Simon; de Hoop, Maarten; Maass, Peter; Öktem, Ozan; Schönlieb, Carola; Unser, Michael (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-11-21)
      Big data and deep learning are modern buzz words which presently infiltrate all fields of science and technology. These new concepts are impressive in terms of the stunning results they achieve for a large variety of ...
    • The Enigma behind the Good–Turing formula 

      [SNAP-2021-008-EN] Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Kulagina, Yulia (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2021-07-16)
      Finding the total number of species in a population based on a finite sample is a difficult but practically important problem. In this snapshot, we will attempt to shed light on how during World War II, two cryptanalysts, ...
    • Expander graphs and where to find them 

      [SNAP-2019-016-EN] Khukhro, Ana (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-11-22)
      Graphs are mathematical objects composed of a collection of “dots” called vertices, some of which are joined by lines called edges. Graphs are ideal for visually representing relations between things, and mathematical ...
    • A few shades of interpolation 

      [SNAP-2017-007-EN] Szpond, Justyna (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2017-12-07)
      The topic of this snapshot is interpolation. In the ordinary sense, interpolation means to insert something of a different nature into something else. In mathematics, interpolation means constructing new data points ...
    • Formation Control and Rigidity Theory 

      [SNAP-2019-017-EN] Zelazo, Daniel; Zhao, Shiyu (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-12-11)
      Formation control is one of the fundamental coordination tasks for teams of autonomous vehicles. Autonomous formations are used in applications ranging from search-and-rescue operations to deep space exploration, with ...
    • From the dollar game to the Riemann-Roch Theorem 

      [SNAP-2021-001-EN] Lamboglia, Sara; Ulirsch, Martin (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2021-02-23)
      What is the dollar game? What can you do to win it? Can you always win it? In this snapshot you will find answers to these questions as well as several of the mathematical surprises that lurk in the background, including ...
    • The Interaction of Curvature and Topology 

      [SNAP-2019-020-EN] Kordaß, Jan-Bernhard (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-12-18)
      In this snapshot we will outline the mathematical notion of curvature by means of comparison geometry. We will then try to address questions as the ways in which curvature might influence the topology of a space, and ...
    • Is it possible to predict the far future before the near future is known accurately? 

      [SNAP-2019-021-EN] Gander, Martin J. (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-12-18)
      It has always been the dream of mankind to predict the future. If the future is governed by laws of physics, like in the case of the weather, one can try to make a model, solve the associated equations, and thus predict ...
    • Lagrangian mean curvature flow 

      [SNAP-2021-011-EN] Lotay, Jason D. (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2021-09-16)
      Lagrangian mean curvature flow is a powerful tool in modern mathematics with connections to topics in analysis, geometry, topology and mathematical physics. I will describe some of the key aspects of Lagrangian mean curvature ...
    • Limits of graph sequences 

      [SNAP-2019-010-EN] Klimošová, Tereza (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-09-04)
      Graphs are simple mathematical structures used to model a wide variety of real-life objects. With the rise of computers, the size of the graphs used for these models has grown enormously. The need to efficiently represent ...
    • The Mathematics of Fluids and Solids 

      [SNAP-2019-019-EN] Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kukavica, Igor; Lasiecka, Irena; Triggiani, Roberto; Tuffaha, Amjad; Webster, Justin (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-12-18)
      Fluid-structure interaction is a rich and active field of mathematics that studies the interaction between fluids and solid objects. In this short article, we give a glimpse into this exciting field, as well as a ...
    • Mixed-dimensional models for real-world applications 

      [SNAP-2019-014-EN] Nordbotten, Jan Martin (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-11-21)
      We explore mathematical models for physical problems in which it is necessary to simultaneously consider equations in different dimensions; these are called mixed-dimensional models. We first give several examples, and ...
    • Nonlinear Acoustics 

      [SNAP-2019-008-EN] Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Brunnhuber, Rainer (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-09-04)
      Nonlinear acoustics has been a topic of research for more than 250 years. Driven by a wide range and a large number of highly relevant industrial and medical applications, this area has expanded enormously in the last ...
    • On Logic, Choices and Games 

      [SNAP-2019-009-EN] Oliva, Paulo (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-09-04)
      Can we always mathematically formalise our taste and preferences? We discuss how this has been done historically in the field of game theory, and how recent ideas from logic and computer science have brought an interesting ...
    • On radial basis functions 

      [SNAP-2019-002-EN] Buhmann, Martin; Jäger, Janin (Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, 2019-03-13)
      Many sciences and other areas of research and applications from engineering to economics require the approximation of functions that depend on many variables. This can be for a variety of reasons. Sometimes we have a ...